Proteins are formed naturally by a gene found within our DNA. Proteins are responsible for nearly every process in the cell structure, including cell growth, production of new cells, communication between cells, when and what nutrients to absorb, and even when a cell is supposed to die. The process that causes protein synthesis is located in our DNA. This serves as a pattern or a blueprint for biologically automated transcriptional processes to produce the genetic messenger molecule RNA (mRNA).
The messages coded by mRNA are instructions for synthesizing proteins to build a protein molecule via the structure and creation of amino acids. This is called the translational process. Every single organism’s proteins are synthesized in a comparable dual-step process. First, instructions from the DNA are transcribed into the messenger, or mRNA. Second, mRNA is then translated into protein.
This entire process is required to create a gene expression, which is in turn required to create a specific recombinant protein for use in various forms of research, to modify or manipulate gene sequencing, to increase the manufacturing of proteins, and even to be used in the production of industrial and research products.
What Are Recombinant Proteins
Proteins are also responsible for creating antibodies to fight pathogens introduced into the body. It’s this particular process that creates a need for recombinant proteins.
Recombinant proteins are those that are manufactured via cloning through a process made possible by recombinant technology. The purpose for recombinant proteins is the production of a large quantity of specific proteins targeting the cell expression you want to clone. Engineered recombinant proteins are then used in a lab to study how proteins interact with each other at the cellular level. It’s the observation of these interactions that allow researchers to find treatments for multiple biological dysfunctions and diseases.
Steps for Creating Recombinant Protein
- Isolate and identify the coding sequence for the target protein at the genetic level.
- Place into a cloning receptacle called a vector.
- Clone the protein using an expression system, such as Mammalian Transient Protein Expression System, Baculovirus Expression System, or the Bacterial Protein Expression System
- Convert into a protein expression host.
- Test for targeted recombinant protein in the expression host.
- Produce on a large scale.
- Isolate and then purify recombinant protein.
Speed of purification, functionality, protein solubility, and yield are key factors in determining which expression system to use. Recombinant proteins have performed admirably in testing techniques such as immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA, and Western Blot. The engineered proteins are used in conjunction with a matched antibody pair to build enzymatic assays, which are then used as positive controls in Western Blot and IHC, as well as standards in ELISA. The proteins and techniques serve as valuable tools for research into response to stress at the cellular level and studies of many types of diseases.
Recent advancements in the biotechnology sector have seen a marked increase in the use and simplification of creating recombinant proteins for numerous applications, such as diagnostic reagents, research in the life sciences, and therapeutic drugs for a number of diseases and dysfunctions.