Dynamic Programming in Game Development: Pathfinding and AI

In computer science, dynamic programming is an optimization technique for recursive functions. It reduces the amount of recursion by using small reusable subproblems and by saving solutions to them rather than recalculating the solution every time.

What is the difference between dynamic programming and general programming?

Dynamic programming is a specific technique used within the broader realm of general programming. 

Dynamic programming is a strategy for solving particular types of problems that involves breaking them down into smaller, overlapping subproblems and optimizing the computation of these subproblems through memoization or tabulation.

General programming is writing code to create software applications using standard programming languages and techniques. 

Beginners should start with standard programming, learn the fundamentals, and gain experience in writing code. Novices may need some help with programming homework that can be complex or overwhelming. But, once they have a solid foundation, they can expand their knowledge, explore specialized techniques like dynamic programming, and progress on their programming journey. 

Although DP can seem intimidating, learning about these standard algorithms is a great way to prepare for coding interviews and improve your performance. This article will discuss the most popular DP patterns and tips on recognizing them.


Creating worlds where game characters can walk and move around requires computational resources. In addition to graphics rendering, pathfinding is one of the most CPU-intensive tasks for games that require much movement.

It is possible to speed up pathfinding algorithms by using dynamic programming techniques. This approach involves dividing the map into blocks and searching for paths that connect those blocks to the goal. It combines the F score (a distance from the goal) with each block’s g and h scores.

This method works best for problems that have overlapping subproblems. It is not practical for problems with no overlapping issues because storing solutions that will not be needed again does not make sense. This is similar to how caches work in computers and why they are crucial for everyday problem-solving. It also removes recursion, which reduces timing complexity.


Video game developers use AI to streamline their work and speed up the game development process. Developers can also use it to improve gameplay and create more complex environments.

Generative AI can create diverse and dynamic game levels, quests, and challenges, providing unique experiences to players. It can also adjust the difficulty level of a game based on the player’s skill level.

The underlying principle of dynamic programming is to break a problem into smaller, reusable subproblems. Then, find optimal solutions for these subproblems. Then, solve the more significant problem by combining the results of these subproblems. This technique reduces recursion and leads to a reduction in timing complexity.

Another benefit of dynamic programming is its ability to remember the results of previous calculations. This can save time and money, mainly when working with long, complicated equations. In addition, this method can help to find the minimum cost for an optimal path. It can also be used to optimize the solution for different starting points.


In game development, optimization is the process of making a computer program more efficient in order to run faster. This can be done using techniques like loop-breaking, variable caching, and heap compression. However, optimizing a game is often challenging because new features are constantly being added, and it takes work to know what has the most significant impact on performance.

In mathematical terms, a problem can be considered dynamic programming if it has an optimal substructure and overlapping sub-problems. This means that the solution to each overlapping sub-problem depends on the solutions to all previous problems. This is why recursive functions are so famous for this type of problem, as it is one of the best ways to solve them.

However, remember that optimizing a game past the point of usefulness can be a waste of time and will only worsen the game. Instead, focusing on prototyping a mechanic straightforwardly and naively so that it can be playtested quickly is a much better option.


Recursion is a programming technique that involves code repetition until certain conditions are met. It is instrumental in solving problems that form a hierarchy; each iteration of the code solves smaller decision tasks, ultimately leading to the original problem’s solution.

Each recursive call creates entries for variables and constants in the function stack, which can cause memory problems when the stack becomes too large. This is a stack overflow error and can be very difficult to debug.

Dynamic programming solves this problem by caching each value on the function stack after it is calculated. This means the function does not have to recalculate the same value for each iteration, saving memory and making the program run faster. The cache is usually stored in memory but can also be a file system, database, or server on another continent. The same concept that is used for cache in these systems is called memoization, which is the heart of dynamic programming.


In game development, dynamic programming offers a powerful toolkit for optimizing pathfinding and AI algorithms, making games more efficient and engaging. Dynamic programming minimizes recursion and reduces timing complexity by breaking down complex problems into smaller, reusable subproblems and applying techniques like memoization. The transformative impact of dynamic programming enhances gameplay with its potential to create smoother pathfinding, powerful AI, and improved optimization, ultimately making game development more rewarding and efficient.